Machine tools - precision encoders for accurate machining


Vital to modern manufacturing, machine tools allow you to achieve complex component production with high levels of accuracy, efficiency and repeatability. Applications include milling, turning, grinding, electrical discharge machining (EDM), laser cutting, and 3D printing.

The vital role of encoders in machining

Drone_payload.jpg

Precision machining in India

India's machine tool market is currently one of the world's fastest-growing sectors. As the country continues to develop and diversify its industrial landscape, the machine tool market will be key to driving technological advancement, economic growth and global competitiveness in India.

Machine tools - Fortis CNC_5.gif


Accurate positioning and motion control are critical to precision manufacturing. Parts produced on machines with unreliable position feedback can result in costly errors, material waste and low productivity. Encoder technologies ensure the accuracy, reliability and performance of machines that use motion systems.


Encoder for Machine tools_5-axis.jpg
5-axis CNC.jpg
A 5-axis CNC milling machine



1. Linear axes


Enclosed linear encoders are designed to withstand exposure to vibrations, lubricant, and temperature fluctuations, for robust performance even in harsh machine tool environments.
  • Position feedback: linear encoders provide accurate and real-time feedback on the position of the linear axis. This information is essential for the CNC controller to ensure that the tool or workpiece is precisely positioned according to the programmed instructions.
  • Closed-loop control: the CNC system utilizes closed-loop control, where the feedback from the linear encoder is continuously compared with the commanded position. Any discrepancies trigger adjustments to the motor movements, ensuring that the actual position matches the desired position.
  • Precision machining: the high resolution of linear encoders enables CNC machines to achieve fine positional increments, leading to precise machining operations. This is crucial for producing accurate and high-quality parts.

Renishaw's proven FORTiS™ absolute encoder system provides a uniquely sealed design that enables even greater resistance to contamination by fluids and solid debris.




2. Spindle


Spindle encoders excel in high-precision CNC machine tools, fine processing machining centres, and spindle applications.

These dynamic settings demand exact synchronisation of angle control, speed, and feed rate – think of typical applications like CNC automatic tool changers (ATC) and thread tapping process. Similar to linear encoders, spindle encoders need to maintain effectiveness in demanding industrial conditions.

  • Speed control: spindle encoders provide feedback on the rotational speed of the spindle. This information is crucial for maintaining the desired cutting speeds during machining processes. It allows the CNC controller to adjust the spindle speed in real-time to match the programmed parameters.
  • Tool synchronization: in multi-tool machining or tool changes, spindle encoders help synchronize the movements of the spindle with the tool change process. This ensures smooth transitions and prevents collisions between the tool and the workpiece.
  • Thermal compensation: spindle encoders contribute to thermal compensation by providing feedback on temperature-related changes in the spindle. This information allows the CNC system to adjust the machining parameters to account for thermal expansion or contraction.

CNC spindle.jpg

The SpinCo™ incremental magnetic encoder system is designed for use as primary position and speed feedback sensor for machine tool spindles.



3. Rotary table


Direct–driven (DD) rotary tables are commonly employed to boost production efficiency by the precision machining industry. To guarantee accuracy, open-type encoders are often used as they do not require mechanical coupling between the scale and the encoder.

Machine tools - rotary table.gif

  • Angular position feedback: rotary table encoders provide feedback on the angular position of the rotary table. This information is critical for applications where workpieces need to be rotated to specific angles during machining operations.
  • Indexing and contouring: CNC machines often use rotary tables for indexing or continuous contouring. The feedback from rotary encoders ensures precise angular positioning, enabling the CNC controller to execute complex machining paths and contours.
  • Multi-axis coordination: in machines with multiple axes, rotary table encoders contribute to the coordination of movements. The CNC controller uses the feedback from the rotary encoder to synchronize the rotational movements of the table with other linear and rotary axes.


Haozhi DDR1.jpg
Haozhi RESOLUTE.jpg
Haozhi’s direct-drive rotary tables are fitted with RESOLUTE series absolute encoders to enhance motion control accuracy


The RESOLUTE™ true-absolute encoder measures position with fine resolutions down to 1 nm and high speeds up to 100 m/s, delivering exceptional metrology performance.


Precision in industrial environments


Renishaw enclosed linear encoders, rotary encoders, and spindle encoders provide accuracy, reliability, and durability to minimise errors and downtime. They are meticulously crafted to deliver precise position feedback in industrial environments.




What to consider when selecting encoder systems for machine tools?

Machine tools

Performance

✔ Scale accuracy
✔ Scale linearity
✔ Resolution
✔ Sub-divisional error
✔ Scale CTE
✔ Speed
✔ Controller input frequency
✔ Cable flex Radius
✔ Cable flex life



Environment

✔  Temperature
✔  Humidity
✔  Vibration
✔  Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
✔  IP rating

Installation

✔ Size
✔ Top or side mount
✔ Ride height tolerance
✔ Yaw / pitch / roll
✔ Readhead travel orientation
✔ Cable exit direction
✔ Connectors
✔ Substrate type
✔ Mounting method
✔ Reference datum
✔ Limits


Others

✔ Analogue / digital
✔ Interpolation clock frequency
✔ Alarm type
✔ Reference limit
✔ Termination
✔ Protocol

Success stories: machine tools

Heading 1

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book.

Form Heading

Combat harsh environments in precision grinding

The working environment of a tool grinding machine is harsh and includes machining vibrations, and contaminants such as cooling fluid and grinding swarf.

As a long-time customer of Renishaw, Tool Grinding Technologies Inc. (TGT) has developed a range of precision tool grinding machines equipped with linear motors and Renishaw's FORTiS™ enclosed absolute encoders which help to improve machining accuracy and process stability.

Open quotation mark

The installation of the FORTiS™ enclosed encoder is very simple, which has greatly improved our productivity.

Using the ADTa-100 tool and after receiving the appropriate Renishaw training, our engineers can complete a single-axis installation in only 15 minutes.

Tool Grinding Technologies Inc. (India) Close quotation mark


One of the major advantages of using the FORTiS™ dual-readhead enclosed encoder is that it simplifies the mechanical arrangement of the machine, which saves space and reduces cost. It enables faster and simpler encoder installation and servicing for TGT.


Image



Accelerate the performance of direct-drive motors

Haozhi is an industry leader in direct-drive technology for machine tool and robotics applications in China.

Encoders are one of the most critical components in Haozhi’s motion control products. Important encoder errors for rotary motors include sub-divisional error (SDE), jitter, installation error (which includes scale eccentricity), scale graduation error and the compliance of the coupling between the motor and the encoder rotary scale.



Open quotation mark

The LA11 was ideal because it minimised our space requirements by producing both absolute and incremental signals from one readhead and scale tape.

RESOLUTE encoders support most mainstream industrial comms protocols including FANUC, Mitsubishi, Siemens DRIVE-CLiQ and BiSS®. 

Haozhi Mechanical and Electrical (China) Close quotation mark



Breakthrough in multi-axis rotary table design

As multi-axis machine tool technology matures, demand for rotary tables with enhanced accuracy and rotational speed is rising.

Taiwan's Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) has addressed this market trend by developing an advanced dual-axis rotary table with integrated RESOLUTE absolute rotary encoders and Panasonic serial communication protocols for direct interfacing with Panasonic drives and controllers.


Open quotation mark

Although machine tool environments are generally contaminated with metal swarf, oil and coolant, enclosing an open encoder within the motor eliminates any related problems.

Moreover, RESOLUTE's high level of ingress protection (IP64) provides further assurance.

Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan) Close quotation mark








Recommended solutions

Image

Breakthrough in multi-axis rotary table design

Taiwan's Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) has addressed the market trend by developing an advanced dual-axis rotary table with integrated RESOLUTE™ absolute rotary encoders and Panasonic serial communication protocols for direct interfacing with Panasonic drives and controllers.


Open quotation mark

Although machine tool environments are generally contaminated with metal swarf, oil and coolant, enclosing an open encoder within the motor eliminates any related problems.

Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan) Close quotation mark


Image

Sweet spot between cost control and technology advancement

SOLPOWER is a Taiwanese manufacturer of direct-drive (DD) rotary tables, integrated spindle motors and linear motors. Manufacturing cost control is vital to success in the machine tool industry in Taiwan.


Open quotation mark

We developed the most cost-effective rotary table possible, which means that cost must be strictly controlled from design, parts procurement to production.

Renishaw as a major supplier is an important part of our cost-efficiency strategy.

SOLPOWER (Taiwan) Close quotation mark




Recommended solutions

Machine tools

For machine tools

Paint Point #1

Image

Paint Point #1

Image

Paint Point #1

Image

Paint Point #2

Image

Paint Point #2

Image

Paint Point #2

Image

Paint Point #3

Image

Paint Point #3

Image

Paint Point #3

Image

RESOLUTE™ true-absolute encoder 

The true-absolute encoder with a high-speed fine-resolution position measurement system. Position is acquired immediately on start-up without requiring any motion, offering smooth velocity control and dependable positional stability. Available with linear and rotary scales with a variety of serial interfaces.

High speed

Excellent dirt immunity

Low SDE

Low jitter

Image
Image

FORTiS™ enclosed linear encoder

The next-generation enclosed absolute encoder is built for use in harsh environments, which delivers high performance and significant benefits over conventional systems with an exceptionally robust enclosed design.

✔ Industry-proven position measurement

Superior sealing

Easy installation

✔ Non contact

SpinCo™ incremental magnetic encoder

Designed for use as primary position and speed feedback sensor for machine tool spindles, the SpinCo™ encoder system consists of two key elements: a readhead and a magnetic ring.

✔ High speed

Robust design

✔ Signal stability

✔ Small readhead size

Image
Image

LA12 absolute magnetic encoder

Designed for motion control applications as a position and velocity control loop feedback element. LA12’s readhead is sealed to IP67 providing reliable operation with resolutions up to 0.244 µm and supports Mitsubishi, Yaskawa and Fanuc serial communication.

✔ W

D

H

✔ R

AM8192B rotary magnetic encoder IC

Integrates proven filtering optics and interpolation technology into a super-compact, analogue or digital incremental open optical encoder, with wide installation tolerances and built-in calibration functions.

✔ Wide installation tolerances

Dirt immunity

High performance

✔ Robust

Image
Image

OnAxis™ encoder modules

Integrates proven filtering optics and interpolation technology into a super-compact, analogue or digital incremental open optical encoder, with wide installation tolerances and built-in calibration functions.

✔ Wide installation tolerances

Dirt immunity

High performance

✔ Robust

Speak to out manufacturing consultants

Looking for a deeper dive into success stories?


XK10 Used and Trusted

Seeking a tailored solution?


Tell us your requirements and our application engineers will work with you to find the right solution.


Encoder custom solution.png

Learn how much manufacturers are benefitting from using XK10

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum consequat mauris eu ullamcorper convallis. Phasellus accumsan, massa in ultrices eleifend, orci nibh commodo nisl, sed sollicitudin arcu urna sit amet enim. Mauris ante turpis, imperdiet eget interdum ac, eleifend volutpat lacus. Integer id nisi cursus, suscipit dui at, auctor ipsum. Suspendisse pulvinar aliquam sapien, id placerat sem tristique vel.

Video #1

Video #2

Video #3

Case Studies

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum consequat mauris eu ullamcorper convallis. Phasellus accumsan, massa in ultrices eleifend, orci nibh commodo nisl, sed sollicitudin arcu urna sit amet enim. Mauris ante turpis, imperdiet eget interdum ac, eleifend volutpat lacus. Integer id nisi cursus, suscipit dui at, auctor ipsum. Suspendisse pulvinar aliquam sapien, id placerat sem tristique vel.

Image

Video #1

Image

Video #2

Image

Video #3

Image

Video #4

Image

Video #5

Image

Video #6

loading